free uk shipping with orders over £75


Your Cart is Empty

February 22, 2023 6 min read


Imagine a vibrant street parade of colourful costumes and characters, masks, music, and the sound of laughter in the air. That's what you'd experience if you attended Martinique Carnival. It's a beautiful celebration of life and culture, but there’s more to it than meets the eye.

Though this festival has roots in early European colonial history, its history is much richer than that. Martinique Carnival is steeped in history and tradition that embodies life in the Caribbean islands. It's a jam-packed cultural event with deep historical significance that dates back thousands of years and crosses many cultures. This article will take you on a journey through time to explore the historical significance of Martinique Carnival and why it’s a tradition worth preserving.

Introduction to Martinique Carnival

When you think of the Caribbean, what often comes to mind are the endless beaches and vibrant nightlife. But did you know there is also a rich cultural tradition that has been celebrated for centuries? Martinique Carnival is a unique blend of African and European culture that dates back to the colonial era.

Its roots trace to the island of Saint-Pierre, which was a major hub during the colonisation period. It is said to have been born out of a wave of religious conversion that swept through the Caribbean during that time—a type of conversion motivated by freedom from slavery and oppression.

Today, Martinique Carnival is an annual celebration and a reminder of our storied past, but it's also something more: an opportunity for citizens to express themselves through music, art, dance, costume and pageantry, paying homage to African roots while celebrating in modern times.

History and Significance in the Caribbean

Martinique Carnival is a festival that’s been celebrated in Martinique since the time of colonialism. It takes place before Lent and is filled with music, dancing, parades and art exhibitions. This celebration is not just about getting together and having fun; it has an important history and cultural significance for the Caribbean that should be preserved.

The origins of Martinique Carnival can be traced back to a period when slavery was rampant in the Caribbean. It was a way for slaves to celebrate their culture while also mocking their oppressors by imitating their mannerisms. This gave them a sense of freedom during difficult times. Even today, the celebration honours the resilience of African-Caribbean communities who endured oppression through their joyous displays of culture and music.

By understanding its roots, you can gain a greater appreciation for this charming event and its huge impact on Caribbean culture. Whether you’re from the Caribbean or have heritage from this region, or none of these, feeling part of this unique tradition connects us all in celebrating our shared history with pride.

The Carnival Tradition: Touloulou and Papier-Mâché Masks

As with many of its cultural forms, Martinique Carnival has some unique elements that bring it to life. Touloulou and papier-mâché masks are a big part of it; these paper masks are made for the occasion and are worn to disguise oneself as a particular character. This is an example of how Caribbean culture resists uniformity; even within the same events and customs, individuals express their personalities through their own unique expressions.

Touloulou and papier-mâché masks originated during the colonial period, when slaves were not allowed to portray themselves or their culture because of laws imposed by French colonialists. As a form of resistance, slaves would make these masks to disguise themselves and express themselves freely in public without getting caught.

This tradition has been passed down through generations and continues today as part of Martinique Carnival celebrations. Both touloulou and papier-mâché masks can be found at any Carnival event in Martinique, providing an interesting contrast between old traditions and modern festivities. So if you’re ever in the Caribbean around Carnival time, be sure to look out for these symbols of self-expression!

Music of Martinique Carnival

Martinique Carnival is best known for its captivating music, which has been a major part of the celebration for centuries. There are three main types of music at Martinique Carnival: Gwo ka, Compas, and Biguine. Gwo ka is a traditional form of drumming that is usually performed with drums and wind instruments. Compas is a medium-tempo dance music style that originated in Haiti, and it's usually played at outdoor gatherings during the celebration. Biguine is a variation of French quadrille music that was popular in the 18th century, and today it's still regularly played during Martinique Carnival festivities.

  • Gwo ka -Gwo ka has been an important part of Martinique Carnival since the 16th century. It's a highly rhythmic type of drumming that involves both drums and hand-held percussion instruments, like triangles and sticks. The drums used range from congas to tam-tams to djembes - all of which contribute to creating an infectious beat that can really get people dancing.
  • Compas -Compas, incredibly popular at Martinique Carnival celebrations, often lasting until sunrise! This type of Haitian dance music reflects Caribbean culture and its diversified musical influences - from jazz to funk to merengue. The lyrics to compas songs are often filled with rhymes about current political issues or human relationships, making it a great way for Carnival revellers to express their views in an upbeat way.
  • Biguine -African slaves created biguine to rebel against their masters during the 18th century. In many Caribbean celebrations, such as Martinique Carnival, it's still very much alive today.

Celebrations of Cultural Heritage

Martinique Carnival can be seen as a celebration of the island’s African, Amerindian and French cultural heritage. For the past two centuries, locals have used the festivities of Carnival to represent their culture and identity.

The first Kweyol Carnival procession was inspired by African slave emancipation in 1848. As Martinique is located in the French Caribbean, many of their carnival traditions are derived from their coloniser, such as festive parades and lip-sync performances. In addition, local Martinicans practice masquerade ball-style rituals that are an infusion of West Indian cultural traditions, such as masking and costuming.

Masking and Costume

Masking & costume plays a large part in Martinique Carnival by representing different cultural identities. Each year more than 200 floats fill the streets representing traditional characters such as 'the devil', 'the king', 'the queen' and 'the witch doctor'. In addition locals dress up in colonial costumes to pay homage to their history and legacy.


Another integral part of Carnival is music & dance with locals performing traditional Creole dances like twoubadou, biguine and kaladja. Each style has a unique history – twoubadou being inspired by romantic love songs between former slaves; biguine being derived from 19th century Creole Jazz; kaladja flourishing from slave cultural expression throughout the country's plantation estates, all united through musical expression for this very special time of year!

Modern Take on Martinique Carnival

Martinique Carnival, a centuries-old tradition, has evolved to express the vibrancy and liveliness of Caribbean culture. With its renowned costumes, sampler music, and pageantry of floats, it is an eye-catching contemporary celebration.

Organisers strive to keep up with current trends while still maintaining the traditional elements of the celebration. For example, while traditional carnival drums or 'tambours' are still integral parts of the party scene, they now also include modern soca and dancehall music that has made its way onto the carnival playlist.

We've also seen a lot of modernisation in terms of fashion and design for Martinique Carnival costumes. Gone are the days when all you could find were plain feather and sequin garments - now there's an array of vibrant pieces featuring elaborate designs with striking colour combinations and innovative use of materials like rubber.

It's these modern takes on the tradition that have kept Martinique Carnival alive and well - it’s become so much more than just a cultural event – it’s something that Caribbean people can be proud to showcase their culture through. It is events like these that we here atC'RIBBE take our inspiration and ideas from in order to create our colourful clothing!


With a mix of African, French and Indigenous Caribbean cultural influences, the two-week long carnival is a living embodiment of the Caribbean spirit and quite rightly, one of the must-see cultural events that Martinique has to offer. Whether it’s making your own Papier-mâché mask with family and friends, or joining the elegant Touloulou tradition, there’s something for everyone at Carnival.

With the help of Carnival, we can learn to understand our history and pass it on for future generations. In connecting to the past, we’re also able to appreciate the unique culture of the region and give our traditions the importance they rightly deserve. So why not take the opportunity to experience the vibrant Carnival that is the heartbeat of Martinique, and better appreciate a part of the Caribbean’s culture that was almost lost.

Shop our range of Caribbean inspired clothing here

Leave a comment

Also in Blog

Saint Lucia Independence - February 22
The Struggle and Triumph of Saint Lucia's Independence

February 15, 2023 3 min read

Saint Lucia is a small island nation in the eastern Caribbean, known for its lush rainforests, stunning beaches, and vibrant culture. Yet behind its natural beauty lies a complex and fascinating history, shaped by centuries of colonial rule, slavery, and struggle for independence.

Shop our range of Saint Lucia inspired apparel here

Read More